International Journal of Innovations in Science & Technology <p>International Journal of Innovations in Science and Technology (ISSN 2618-1630) is an international peer reviewed and "Open Access" multidisciplinary journal designed to explore advances in various disciplines of Science and Technology. Researcher can submit their field observations and the results of laboratory experiments to IJIST within "<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Aims and Scopes</a>" of the journal. Journal publish issues quarterly. </p> <ul> <li><strong>Rapid Publication:</strong> manuscripts are trasnparently reviewed by internaltional and local reviewers and the first decision is provided to authors within 10-15 Days. </li> <li><span style="font-weight: bolder;">High Visibility:</span> indexed in HEC, MDPI, REPEC and other <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">database</a>......</li> <li><strong>Recognition of Reviewers: </strong>Reviewers providing timely decisions, thorough peer-review reports are acknowledged with a discount in <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Article Processing Charges.</a></li> </ul> 50sea en-US International Journal of Innovations in Science & Technology 2618-1630 Detection & Quantification of Lung Nodules Using 3D CT images <p>In the computer vision image detection and quantification play an important role. Image Detection and quantification is the process of identifying nodule position and amount of covered area. The dataset which &nbsp;we have used for this research contains the 3D CT lungs images. In our proposed work we &nbsp;have taken 3D images and those are high resolution images. We have compared &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;accuracy of existing mask and our segmented images. The segmentation &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;method that we have applied on these images &nbsp;is Sparse Field Method localized region based segmentation and for Nodule detection I have used ray projection. The ray projection method is efficient for making point more visible by there x,y,z components. like parametric equation where line crossing through targeted point by that nodule is more dominated. In the last apply frangi filter to give geometric shape to nodule and we got 90% accurate detection.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Falak Memon Moazzam jawaid Shahnawaz Talpur Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Innovations in Science & Technology 2023-01-29 2023-01-29 5 1 68 79 Pragmatic Evidence on Android Malware Analysis Techniques: A Systematic Literature Review <p>A large number of studies including research articles and surveys on android malware detection and analysis techniques have been presented during the last one and a half decades. The authors proposed different systems and frameworks to identify malware from software applications. However, there is no recent and comprehensive systematic literature review on the detection and analysis of android malware methods, systems, and frameworks. We present a systematic review of literature on android malware detection and analysis techniques and tools by following standard guidelines for Systematic Literature Review methodology from 2010 to 2021. We selected 75 most relevant studies out of 3343 published studies. We found that the prominent malicious datasets are Genome (39%) and Drebin (36%) used by different researchers for the detection of malware. The static, dynamic, and hybrid source code analysis methods are applied by android malware detection techniques. We also identified the limitations and future research directions of existing techniques as research gaps for the community. Based on the pragmatic evidence of this research, we have proposed a hybrid analysis-based multiple feature analysis framework. This framework will not only address the limitations of static and dynamic-based approaches, but it also analyzes evolving android malware datasets using deep neural network and machine learning techniques and improve the accuracy of evolving malware samples.</p> Mian Muhammad Bilal Ghulam Rasool Sajid Ibrahim Hashmi zaigham Mushtaq Copyright (c) 2023 50SEA 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 5 1 1 19 Action Recognition of Human Skeletal Data Using CNN and LSTM <p>Human action recognition recognizes an action performed by human beings in order to witness the type of action being performed. A lot of technologies have been developed in order to perform this task like GRN, KNN, SVM, depth maps, and two-stream maps. We have used 3 different methods in our research first method is a 2D CNN model, the second method uses an LSTM model and the third method is a combination of CNN+LSTM. With the help of ReLu as an activation function for hidden and input layers. Softmax is an activation function for output training of a neural network. After performing some epochs the results of the recognition of activity are declared. Our dataset is WISDM which recognizes 6 activities e.g., Running, Walking, Sitting, Standing, Downstairs, and Upstairs. After the model is done training the accuracy and loss of recognition of action are described. We achieved to increase in the accuracy of our LSTM model by tuning the hyperparameter by 1.5%. The accuracy of recognition of action is now 98.5% with a decrease in a loss that is 0.09% on the LSTM model, the accuracy of 0.92% and loss of 0.24% is achieved on our 2D CNN model while the CNN+LSTM model gave us an accuracy of 0.90% with the loss of 0.46% that is a stupendous achievement in the path of recognizing actions of a human. Then we introduced autocorrelation for our models. After that, the features of our models and their correlations with each other are also introduced in our research.</p> Zara Asghar Saira Moin Irfan Qutab Muhammad Aqeel Copyright (c) 2023 50SEA 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 5 1 20 36 Historical Development of Urban Planning Theory: Review and Comparison of Theories in Urban Planning <p>Discipline of urban planning only developed around a century back with the first academic school at the University of Liverpool in 1909. However, the theory of this discipline is relatively older and might date to varying timelines around various parts of the world. However, modern urban planning discipline has got birth in the US and Western Europe. Early development in the theory of urban planning develops challenges for the cities. In response to such challenges, the planning approaches seem to adapt to the needs of emerging regimes evident from the high-scale urban renovation of Paris by Haussmann. This is called the Progressive Model of Planning wherein planners of the time struggled to deal with the challenges imparted by the Industrial Revolution through scientific and engineering-based knowledge. Early urban planning efforts were mostly anarchist movements that reacted to the social issues of the time and include Garden City, Radiant City, Broadacre, etc. This study sought to present these theoretical considerations with respect to certain development classifications in urban planning. Accordingly, the methodology of the research study comprises the following sections/segments for a better understanding of urban planning at different times:</p> <ol> <li>Pre-History of Urban Planning</li> <li>Foundational Years</li> <li>Modernism (Rational Planning)</li> <li>Post Modernism (Post war suburbia)</li> <li>Current Era</li> </ol> <p>In short, it is concluded that cities have emerged as a result of conscious decisions. Accordingly, looking into the planning theory requires due consideration of the planning approaches utilized over time. This perceives that planning theory is essentially the study of the decisions made from intuition and that is equally right because planning theory and practice development are in parallel.</p> Muhammad Umar zulfiqar Maria Kausar Copyright (c) 2023 50SEA 2023-01-01 2023-01-01 5 1 37 55 Frontal System Track Variation and Its Impact on Water Availability in Northern Pakistan Using Remote Sensing and Ground Data During Monsoon Season- 2019 <p>Pakistan, which is positioned in the South Asian sub-continent, occupies a significant climatological location. It is included among the world's few countries which experience a comprehensive transformation from summer all the way to winter season. The variation in precipitation has direct and significant consequences on society. In this ongoing research, the latitudinal variation in the track of the frontal system and trends in Pakistan during the monsoon period have been examined. Meteorological data (monthly rainfall, maximum temperature, satellite images, upstream data for Tarbela, Mangla, Rasool, and Marala) has been taken to conduct the ongoing research. Consequently, the focus of the study is the frontal weather system that moves North of Pakistan and energizes the monsoon rainfall over the Indus Basin which makes it a source of flooding. The rainfall is the cause of flooding downstream of rivers in the plains of Punjab and Sindh. Varying trends in rainfall were observed across the selected stations in Pakistan. The ongoing research is conducted across Pakistan with Gilgit and Skardu being the cities in Northern Pakistan. Among all the water reservoirs, Tarbela exhibited an increased upstream flow due to the snow melt factor over glaciers in Gilgit and Skardu because of an increase in maximum temperature.</p> Jahanzeb Qureshi Syed Amer Mahmood Aamer Amin Tahir Mahmood Copyright (c) 2022 50SEA 2023-01-02 2023-01-02 5 1 56 67