Effects of Pesticides: A Review


  • Saira Batool Centre for Integrated Mountain Research (CIMR),Universityof the Punjab, Lahore
  • Areeba Amer Centre for Integrated Mountain Research (CIMR), University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Qammar Shabbir Rana National Defense University Islamabad
  • Raja Rizwan Javed National Defense University Islamabad


Pesticide, Bacteria, Microbiotic activity


There has been a rise in the application of pesticides in recent decades to combat plant diseases, weeds, and insects. Insects and other animals that aren't the intended targets of pesticides have been the subject of numerous scientific investigations. The purpose of this article is to summarise and review the literature on the subject of how pesticides affect animal microbiomes. Pesticides have the power to alter the microbiomes of a wide range of animals, including mammals and insects. Examples include the diversity of bacteria, the diversity of bacterial ratios, and the taxonomic composition of bacteria. Pesticide exposure changes an animal's microbiota, which decreases the animal's resistance to infection. If pesticides have unintended consequences, they could be a worldwide issue for pollinators. Pesticides may also have a lethal effect on insects by altering the composition of their gut microbiota, making insects more susceptible to infection from pathogenic microflora. Furthermore, pesticides can alter reproductive success, vitality, and offspring traits. The methods for improving the bees' microbiome are discussed.


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How to Cite

Saira Batool, Areeba Amer, Qammar Shabbir Rana, & Raja Rizwan Javed. (2022). Effects of Pesticides: A Review. International Journal of Agriculture and Sustainable Development, 4(2), 74–84. Retrieved from https://journal.50sea.com/index.php/IJASD/article/view/460




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