Appraisal of Various Factors Responsible for Decline to Wheat Production


  • Raja Rizwan Javed National Defence University Islamabad


Wheat Yield, Production, Sensors, Controls


One of the most crucial steps in the entire wheat production process is the harvesting of the wheat. China has a large and varied area dedicated to wheat cultivation. Also, there has always been a problem with harvest losses because of the wide variety of brands and the subpar performance of domestic combine harvesters. There will be less money for the farmers if there are any problems during harvest. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to select the appropriate loss reduction methods to effectively reduce wheat harvest losses in light of the actual situation of mechanized wheat harvesting and the losses occurring within various parts of the harvester. This study, guided by the issues of loss during mechanized harvesting, first identifies the primary losses in the operation of a wheat combine harvester, then introduces sensor monitoring technology for grain harvesting loss and intelligent control technology for the combine harvester, and finally analyses the application of these technologies in the service of loss reduction during mechanized wheat harvesting. Finally, we draw some conclusions and make some recommendations about this loss reduction technology for mechanized wheat harvesting so that it can be used as a benchmark elsewhere and contribute to the continued progress of modern agriculture.


Y. Li, Z. Su, Z. Liang, and Y. Li, “Variable-Diameter Drum with Concentric Threshing Gap and Performance Comparison Experiment,” Appl. Sci. 2020, Vol. 10, Page 5386, vol. 10, no. 15, p. 5386, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.3390/APP10155386.

Y. UEKA, M. MATSUI, E. INOUE, K. MORI, T. OKAYASU, and M. MITSUOKA, “Turbulent Flow Characteristics of the Cleaning Wind in Combine Harvester,” Eng. Agric. Environ. Food, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 102–106, Jul. 2012, doi: 10.11165/EAEF.5.102.

H. Tang et al., “Study on Periodic Pulsation Characteristics of Corn Grain in a Grain Cylinder during the Unloading Stage,” Foods 2021, Vol. 10, Page 2314, vol. 10, no. 10, p. 2314, Sep. 2021, doi: 10.3390/FOODS10102314.

Z. Liang, Y. Li, Z. Zhao, and L. Xu, “Structure Optimization of a Grain Impact Piezoelectric Sensor and Its Application for Monitoring Separation Losses on Tangential-Axial Combine Harvesters,” Sensors 2015, Vol. 15, Pages 1496-1517, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1496–1517, Jan. 2015, doi: 10.3390/S150101496.

Z. Liang, Y. Li, L. Xu, and Z. Zhao, “Sensor for monitoring rice grain sieve losses in combine harvesters,” Biosyst. Eng., vol. 147, pp. 51–66, Jul. 2016, doi: 10.1016/J.BIOSYSTEMSENG.2016.03.008.

P. I. Miu and H. D. Kutzbach, “Modeling and simulation of grain threshing and separation in axial threshing units: Part II. Application to tangential feeding,” Comput. Electron. Agric., vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 105–109, Jan. 2008, doi: 10.1016/J.COMPAG.2007.07.004.

M. R. Paulsen et al., “Measurement of Combine Losses for Corn and Soybeans in Brazil,” Am. Soc. Agric. Biol. Eng. Annu. Int. Meet. 2013, ASABE 2013, vol. 1, pp. 1-, 2013, doi: 10.13031/AIM.20131570965.

G. Craessaerts, W. Saeys, B. Missotten, and J. De Baerdemaeker, “Identification of the cleaning process on combine harvesters. Part I: A fuzzy model for prediction of the material other than grain (MOG) content in the grain bin,” Biosyst. Eng., vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 42–49, Sep. 2008, doi: 10.1016/J.BIOSYSTEMSENG.2008.05.016.

G. Craessaerts, W. Saeys, B. Missotten, and J. De Baerdemaeker, “Identification of the cleaning process on combine harvesters, Part II: A fuzzy model for prediction of the sieve losses,” Biosyst. Eng., vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 97–102, Jun. 2010, doi: 10.1016/J.BIOSYSTEMSENG.2009.11.009.

Z. Zhao, Y. Li, J. Chen, and J. Xu, “Grain separation loss monitoring system in combine harvester,” Comput. Electron. Agric., vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 183–188, May 2011, doi: 10.1016/J.COMPAG.2011.01.016.

L. Q. Liu, C. X. Liu, and J. S. Wang, “Deliberating on renewable and sustainable energy policies in China,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 17, pp. 191–198, Jan. 2013, doi: 10.1016/J.RSER.2012.09.018.

J. Chen et al., “Environmentally friendly fertilizers: A review of materials used and their effects on the environment,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 613–614, pp. 829–839, Feb. 2018, doi: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2017.09.186.

D. G. A. B. Oonincx, S. Van Broekhoven, A. Van Huis, and J. J. A. Van Loon, “Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products,” PLoS One, vol. 10, no. 12, p. e0144601, Dec. 2015, doi: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0144601.

G. Bleve, F. A. Ramires, A. Gallo, and A. Leone, “Identification of Safety and Quality Parameters for Preparation of Jellyfish Based Novel Food Products,” Foods 2019, Vol. 8, Page 263, vol. 8, no. 7, p. 263, Jul. 2019, doi: 10.3390/FOODS8070263.

K. Banger, S. S. Kukal, G. Toor, K. Sudhir, and T. H. Hanumanthraju, “Impact of long-term additions of chemical fertilizers and farm yard manure on carbon and nitrogen sequestration under rice-cowpea cropping system in semi-arid tropics,” Plant Soil, vol. 318, no. 1–2, pp. 27–35, May 2009, doi: 10.1007/S11104-008-9813-Z/METRICS.

M. Fan et al., “Improving crop productivity and resource use efficiency to ensure food security and environmental quality in China,” J. Exp. Bot., vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 13–24, Jan. 2012, doi: 10.1093/JXB/ERR248.

F. Zhao, Y. Jiang, X. He, H. Liu, and K. Yu, “Increasing Organic Fertilizer and Decreasing Drip Chemical Fertilizer for Two Consecutive Years Improved the Fruit Quality of ‘Summer Black’ Grapes in Arid Areas,” HortScience, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 196–203, Feb. 2020, doi: 10.21273/HORTSCI14488-19.

C. Drummond and C. Harris, “Linking environment and farming: Integrated systems for sustainable farmland management,” Sustain. Farml. Manag. Transdiscipl. Approaches, pp. 169–177, Dec. 2008, doi: 10.1079/9781845933517.0169.

W. Bedada, E. Karltun, M. Lemenih, and M. Tolera, “Long-term addition of compost and NP fertilizer increases crop yield and improves soil quality in experiments on smallholder farms,” Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., vol. 195, pp. 193–201, Oct. 2014, doi: 10.1016/J.AGEE.2014.06.017.

B. Yang, Z. Xiong, J. Wang, X. Xu, Q. Huang, and Q. Shen, “Mitigating net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensities by substituting chemical nitrogen fertilizers with organic fertilization strategies in rice–wheat annual rotation systems in China: A 3-year field experiment,” Ecol. Eng., vol. 81, pp. 289–297, Aug. 2015, doi: 10.1016/J.ECOLENG.2015.04.071.

H. Ying et al., “Newer and select maize, wheat, and rice varieties can help mitigate N footprint while producing more grain,” Glob. Chang. Biol., vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 4273–4281, Dec. 2019, doi: 10.1111/GCB.14798.

X. Liu et al., “Nitrogen deposition and its ecological impact in China: An overview,” Environ. Pollut., vol. 159, no. 10, pp. 2251–2264, Oct. 2011, doi: 10.1016/J.ENVPOL.2010.08.002.

Y. Li et al., “Nitrogen-Decreasing and Yield-Increasing Effectsof Combined Applications of Organicand Inorganic Fertilizers under ControlledIrrigation in a Paddy Field,” Polish J. Environ. Stud., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 673–680, Mar. 2016, doi: 10.15244/PJOES/61530.

Y. Cai, W. Ding, and J. Luo, “Nitrous oxide emissions from Chinese maize–wheat rotation systems: A 3-year field measurement,” Atmos. Environ., vol. 65, pp. 112–122, Feb. 2013, doi: 10.1016/J.ATMOSENV.2012.10.038.

N. M. H. Khong et al., “Nutritional composition and total collagen content of three commercially important edible jellyfish,” Food Chem., vol. 196, pp. 953–960, Apr. 2016, doi: 10.1016/J.FOODCHEM.2015.09.094.

Z. Wang, Y. Geng, and T. Liang, “Optimization of reduced chemical fertilizer use in tea gardens based on the assessment of related environmental and economic benefits,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 713, p. 136439, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2019.136439.

Y. Zhang et al., “Optimizing the nitrogen application rate for maize and wheat based on yield and environment on the Northern China Plain,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 618, pp. 1173–1183, Mar. 2018, doi: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2017.09.183.

Q. Zhang et al., “Outlook of China’s agriculture transforming from smallholder operation to sustainable production,” Glob. Food Sec., vol. 26, p. 100444, Sep. 2020, doi: 10.1016/J.GFS.2020.100444.

K. Cui and S. P. Shoemaker, “Public perception of genetically-modified (GM) food: A Nationwide Chinese Consumer Study,” npj Sci. Food 2018 21, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–8, Jun. 2018, doi: 10.1038/s41538-018-0018-4.

Z. Cui et al., “Pursuing sustainable productivity with millions of smallholder farmers,” Nat. 2018 5557696, vol. 555, no. 7696, pp. 363–366, Mar. 2018, doi: 10.1038/nature25785.

X. T. Ju et al., “Reducing environmental risk by improving N management in intensive Chinese agricultural systems,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., vol. 106, no. 9, pp. 3041–3046, Mar. 2009, doi: 10.1073/PNAS.0813417106/SUPPL_FILE/0813417106SI.PDF.

J. Sun et al., “Rhizosphere soil properties and banana Fusarium wilt suppression influenced by combined chemical and organic fertilizations,” Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., vol. 254, pp. 60–68, Feb. 2018, doi: 10.1016/J.AGEE.2017.10.010.

J. H. Guo et al., “Significant acidification in major chinese croplands,” Science (80-. )., vol. 327, no. 5968, pp. 1008–1010, Feb. 2010, doi: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1182570/SUPPL_FILE/GUO-SOM.PDF.

X. Zhang et al., “Significant residual effects of wheat fertilization on greenhouse gas emissions in succeeding soybean growing season,” Soil Tillage Res., vol. 169, pp. 7–15, Jun. 2017, doi: 10.1016/J.STILL.2017.01.008.

S. Yang, J. Zhao, S. X. Chang, C. Collins, J. Xu, and X. Liu, “Status assessment and probabilistic health risk modeling of metals accumulation in agriculture soils across China: A synthesis,” Environ. Int., vol. 128, pp. 165–174, Jul. 2019, doi: 10.1016/J.ENVINT.2019.04.044.

E. Shang, E. Xu, H. Zhang, and C. Huang, “Temporal-spatial trends in potentially toxic trace element pollution in farmland soil in the major grain-producing regions of China,” Sci. Reports 2019 91, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–14, Dec. 2019, doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-55278-5.

C. Hartmann, J. Shi, A. Giusto, and M. Siegrist, “The psychology of eating insects: A cross-cultural comparison between Germany and China,” Food Qual. Prefer., vol. 44, pp. 148–156, Sep. 2015, doi: 10.1016/J.FOODQUAL.2015.04.013.

A. C. Franke, S. Schulz, B. D. Oyewole, J. Diels, and O. K. Tobe, “THE ROLE OF CATTLE MANURE IN ENHANCING ON-FARM PRODUCTIVITY, MACRO- AND MICRO-NUTRIENT UPTAKE, AND PROFITABILITY OF MAIZE IN THE GUINEA SAVANNA,” Exp. Agric., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 313–328, Jul. 2008, doi: 10.1017/S0014479708006443.

D. Raheem et al., “Traditional consumption of and rearing edible insects in Africa, Asia and Europe,”, vol. 59, no. 14, pp. 2169–2188, Aug. 2018, doi: 10.1080/10408398.2018.1440191.

J. Shuqin and Z. Fang, “Zero Growth of Chemical Fertilizer and Pesticide Use: China’s Objectives, Progress and Challenges,”, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 50–58, Jan. 2018, doi: 10.5814/J.ISSN.1674-764X.2018.01.006.

K. Maertens, H. Ramon, and J. De Baerdemaeker, “An on-the-go monitoring algorithm for separation processes in combine harvesters,” Comput. Electron. Agric., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 197–207, Jun. 2004, doi: 10.1016/J.COMPAG.2004.01.004.

H. Tang et al., “Analysis and Experiment on the Seed Metering Mechanism of Multi-Grain Cluster Air Suction Type Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Hill Direct Seed Metering Device,” Agric. 2022, Vol. 12, Page 1094, vol. 12, no. 8, p. 1094, Jul. 2022, doi: 10.3390/AGRICULTURE12081094.

D. Li et al., “Analyzing Rice Grain Collision Behavior and Monitoring Mathematical Model Development for Grain Loss Sensors,” Agric. 2022, Vol. 12, Page 839, vol. 12, no. 6, p. 839, Jun. 2022, doi: 10.3390/AGRICULTURE12060839.

J. Ren, L. Liu, J. Zhou, X. Li, and J. Ouyang, “Co-production of ethanol, xylo-oligosaccharides and magnesium lignosulfonate from wheat straw by a controlled magnesium bisulfite pretreatment (MBSP),” Ind. Crops Prod., vol. 113, pp. 128–134, Mar. 2018, doi: 10.1016/J.INDCROP.2018.01.026.

T. Coen, W. Saeys, B. Missotten, and J. De Baerdemaeker, “Cruise control on a combine harvester using model-based predictive control,” Biosyst. Eng., vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 47–55, Jan. 2008, doi: 10.1016/J.BIOSYSTEMSENG.2007.09.023.

Y. Wu, X. Li, E. Mao, Y. Du, and F. Yang, “Design and development of monitoring device for corn grain cleaning loss based on piezoelectric effect,” Comput. Electron. Agric., vol. 179, p. 105793, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1016/J.COMPAG.2020.105793.

J. Ni, H. Mao, F. Pang, Y. Zhu, X. Yao, and Y. Tian, “Design and Experimentation of Piezoelectric Crystal Sensor Array for Grain Cleaning Loss,”, vol. 2015, Jul. 2015, doi: 10.1155/2015/754278.

F. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Ouyang, J. Hao, and X. Yang, “Comparative environmental impact assessments of green food certified cucumber and conventional cucumber cultivation in China,” Renew. Agric. Food Syst., vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 432–442, Oct. 2018, doi: 10.1017/S1742170517000229.

D. Yilmaz and H. C. Sagiroglu, “Development of measurement system for grain loss of some chickpea varieties,” Measurement, vol. 66, pp. 73–79, Apr. 2015, doi: 10.1016/J.MEASUREMENT.2015.01.025.

G. Craessaerts, J. de Baerdemaeker, B. Missotten, and W. Saeys, “Fuzzy control of the cleaning process on a combine harvester,” Biosyst. Eng., vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 103–111, Jun. 2010, doi: 10.1016/J.BIOSYSTEMSENG.2009.12.012.




How to Cite

Raja Rizwan Javed. (2023). Appraisal of Various Factors Responsible for Decline to Wheat Production. International Journal of Agriculture and Sustainable Development, 5(1), 15–22. Retrieved from