Analysis of the Historical Temperature of Different Cities of Pakistan to Determine the Trends and Shift in Temperature


  • Farah Khan Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
  • Amna Hassan Department of Geography, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur
  • Syed Nouman Ali Shah National University of Modern Languages Islamabad, Multan Campus, Pakistan
  • Najma Nazeer Department of Space Science, University of The Punjab Lahore, Pakistan
  • Alamgir A. Khan MNS University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan
  • Shahid Bukhari Hochschule Furtwangen University Berlin Campus, Germany


Climate change, Temperature Shift, Wheat, Crop Growing Season


Antrhopogenic activities are responsible for exponential increase in temperature in recent dacades. To examine this variation, data from 30 meteorological stations in Pakistan's largest cities were examined to determine the annual average and highest temperatures between 1981 and 2020. A combination of parametric and non-parametric tests, including Sen's slope estimator, the Mann-Kendall trend test, and linear regression, were utilized for the analysis. NASA Power Data Access Viewer provides historical climatic datasets which are reliable and provide promising results. We extracted historical footprints of climatic data from NASA website and mapped the trends. About 90% of the meterological stations had rising annual temperature trends, whereas 10% had declining trends. The average annual temperature increased by 0.49 °C per decade in Gilgit, Hyderabad, Quetta, and Lasbela, which was the largest rate of change. Chitral, Gilgit, Nawabshah, and Quetta experienced the biggest increase in annual temperature that was 0.34 °C per decade. Various indicators e.g., simple linear regression and the Mann-Kendall test, respectively, revealed that the yearly average temperature was rising at a 0.001 % (at the 0.06 level). Annual temperatures were increasing at 27 stations and 23 stations were experiencing 0.002 level of significance (at the 0.06 level). Overall, the findings indicated that all climatic parameters were increasing, but during the study period, the annual average temperature was increasing more quickly than the annual maximum temperature.


H. Tabari and P. H. Talaee, “Recent trends of mean maximum and minimum air temperatures in the western half of Iran,” Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., vol. 111, no. 3–4, pp. 121–131, Mar. 2011, doi: 10.1007/S00703-011-0125-0.

H. Tabari and P. Hosseinzadeh Talaee, “Analysis of trends in temperature data in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran,” Glob. Planet. Change, vol. 79, no. 1–2, pp. 1–10, Oct. 2011, doi: 10.1016/J.GLOPLACHA.2011.07.008.

J. Abolverdi, G. Ferdosifar, D. Khalili, A. A. Kamgar-Haghighi, and M. Abdolahipour Haghighi, “Recent trends in regional air temperature and precipitation and links to global climate change in the Maharlo watershed, Southwestern Iran,” Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., vol. 126, no. 3–4, pp. 177–192, 2014, doi: 10.1007/s00703-014-0341-5.

A. Jeganathan and R. Andimuthu, “Temperature trends of Chennai City, India,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 2012 1113, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 417–425, May 2012, doi: 10.1007/S00704-012-0646-6.

“AR4 Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis — IPCC.” (accessed May 15, 2022).

M. Punia et al., “Analysis of temperature variability over north-west part of India for the period 1970–2000,” Nat. Hazards, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 935–952, Jan. 2015, doi: 10.1007/S11069-014-1352-8.

D. Duhan, A. Pandey, K. P. S. Gahalaut, and R. P. Pandey, “Spatial and temporal variability in maximum, minimum and mean air temperatures at Madhya Pradesh in central India,” Comptes Rendus - Geosci., vol. 345, no. 1, pp. 3–21, Jan. 2013, doi: 10.1016/J.CRTE.2012.10.016.

P. Sonali and D. Nagesh Kumar, “Review of trend detection methods and their application to detect temperature changes in India,” J. Hydrol., vol. 476, pp. 212–227, Jan. 2013, doi: 10.1016/J.JHYDROL.2012.10.034.

K. R. Kumar and L. S. Hingane, “Long-term variations of surface air temperature at major industrial cities of India,” Clim. Chang. 1988 133, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 287–307, Dec. 1988, doi: 10.1007/BF00139811.

A. Gadgil and A. Dhorde, “Temperature trends in twentieth century at Pune, India,” Atmos. Environ., vol. 39, no. 35, pp. 6550–6556, 2005, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.07.032.

M. Türkeş and U. M. Sümer, “Spatial and temporal patterns of trends and variability in diurnal temperature ranges of Turkey,” Theor. Appl. Climatol., vol. 77, no. 3–4, pp. 195–227, 2004, doi: 10.1007/s00704-003-0024-5.

S. Sen Roy and R. C. Balling, “Analysis of trends in maximum and minimum temperature, diurnal temperature range, and cloud cover over India,” Geophys. Res. Lett., vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 1–4, 2005, doi: 10.1029/2004GL022201.

M. A. Z. Siddik and M. Rahman, “Trend analysis of maximum, minimum, and average temperatures in Bangladesh: 1961-2008,” Theor. Appl. Climatol., vol. 116, no. 3–4, pp. 721–730, May 2014, doi: 10.1007/S00704-014-1135-X.

S. H. Sajjad, B. Hussain, M. Ahmed Khan, A. Raza, B. Zaman, and I. Ahmed, “On rising temperature trends of Karachi in Pakistan,” Clim. Change, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 539–547, 2009, doi: 10.1007/s10584-009-9598-y.

N. Sadiq and M. S. Qureshi, “Climatic Variability and Linear Trend Models for the Five Major Cities of Pakistan,” J. Geogr. Geol., vol. 2, no. 1, 2010, doi: 10.5539/jgg.v2n1p83.

M. S. Khattak, M. S. Babel, and M. Sharif, “Hydro-meteorological trends in the upper Indus River basin in Pakistan,” Clim. Res., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 103–119, Feb. 2011, doi: 10.3354/CR00957.

W. Ahmad, A. Fatima, U. K. Awan, and A. Anwar, “Analysis of long term meteorological trends in the middle and lower Indus Basin of Pakistan—A non-parametric statistical approach,” Glob. Planet. Change, vol. 122, pp. 282–291, Nov. 2014, doi: 10.1016/J.GLOPLACHA.2014.09.007.

S. S. Hussain, M. Mudasser, M. Munir, and N. Manzoor, “CLIMATE CHANGE AND VARIABILITY IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS OF PAKISTAN Abstract : Introduction :,” vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 75–90, 2005.

H. Sultana, N. Ali, M. M. Iqbal, and A. M. Khan, “Vulnerability and adaptability of wheat production in different climatic zones of Pakistan under climate change scenarios,” Clim. Change, vol. 94, no. 1–2, pp. 123–142, 2009, doi: 10.1007/s10584-009-9559-5.

M. Zahid and G. Rasul, “Changing trends of thermal extremes in Pakistan,” Clim. Change, vol. 113, no. 3–4, pp. 883–896, 2012, doi: 10.1007/s10584-011-0390-4.

E. Kostopoulou and P. D. Jones, “Assessment of climate extremes in the Eastern Mediterranean,” Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., vol. 89, no. 1–4, pp. 69–85, 2005, doi: 10.1007/s00703-005-0122-2.

R. Ambreen, I. Ahmad, S. Sultan, Z. Sun, and M. Nawaz, “A Study of Decadal December Temperature Variability in Pakistan,” Am. J. Clim. Chang., vol. 03, no. 05, pp. 429–437, 2014, doi: 10.4236/ajcc.2014.35038.

R. Shabbir and S. S. Ahmad, “Monitoring urban transport air pollution and energy demand in Rawalpindi and Islamabad using leap model,” Energy, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 2323–2332, 2010, doi: 10.1016/J.ENERGY.2010.02.025.

E. von Schneidemesser, E. A. Stone, T. A. Quraishi, M. M. Shafer, and J. J. Schauer, “Toxic metals in the atmosphere in Lahore, Pakistan,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 408, no. 7, pp. 1640–1648, 2010, doi: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2009.12.022.

M. Sami, A. Waseem, and S. Akbar, “Quantitative estimation of dust fall and smoke particles in Quetta Valley.,” J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B., vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 542–547, 2006, doi: 10.1631/jzus.2006.B0542.

M. Gocic and S. Trajkovic, “Analysis of changes in meteorological variables using Mann-Kendall and Sen’s slope estimator statistical tests in Serbia,” Glob. Planet. Change, vol. 100, pp. 172–182, Jan. 2013, doi: 10.1016/J.GLOPLACHA.2012.10.014.

G. of Pakistan, “Population, Labour Force & Employment, Pakistan Federal Bureau of Statistics; Economic Suevey of Pakistan: Islamabad, Pakistan,” pp. 187–199, 2009.

D. Duhan and A. Pandey, “Statistical analysis of long term spatial and temporal trends of precipitation during 1901-2002 at Madhya Pradesh, India,” Atmos. Res., vol. 122, pp. 136–149, Mar. 2013, doi: 10.1016/J.ATMOSRES.2012.10.010.

X. Feng, G. Zhang, and X. Yin, “Hydrological Responses to Climate Change in Nenjiang River Basin, Northeastern China,” Water Resour. Manag., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 677–689, 2011, doi: 10.1007/s11269-010-9720-y.

M. N. Khaliq, T. B. M. J. Ouarda, P. Gachon, L. Sushama, and A. St-Hilaire, “Identification of hydrological trends in the presence of serial and cross correlations: A review of selected methods and their application to annual flow regimes of Canadian rivers,” J. Hydrol., vol. 368, no. 1–4, pp. 117–130, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.01.035.

T. Fischer, M. Gemmer, L. Lüliu, and S. Buda, “Temperature and precipitation trends and dryness/wetness pattern in the Zhujiang River Basin, South China, 1961-2007,” Quat. Int., vol. 244, no. 2, pp. 138–148, Nov. 2011, doi: 10.1016/J.QUAINT.2010.08.010.

A. Zhang, C. Zheng, S. Wang, and Y. Yao, “Analysis of streamflow variations in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China: Trends, abrupt changes, driving factors and ecological influences,” J. Hydrol. Reg. Stud., vol. 3, pp. 106–124, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.ejrh.2014.10.005.

C. Galdies, “Temperature trends in Malta (central Mediterranean) from 1951 to 2010,” Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 2012 1173, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 135–143, Apr. 2012, doi: 10.1007/S00703-012-0187-7.

R. Ambreen, X. Qiu, and I. Ahmad, “Distributed modeling of extraterrestrial solar radiation over the rugged terrains of Pakistan,” J. Mt. Sci. 2011 83, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 427–436, May 2011, doi: 10.1007/S11629-011-2004-Z.

S. Z. Ilyas, A. I. Khattak, S. M. Nasir, T. Qurashi, and T. Durrani, “Air pollution assessment in urban areas and its impact on human health in the city of Quetta, Pakistan,” Clean Technol. Environ. Policy, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 291–299, 2010, doi: 10.1007/s10098-009-0209-4.

M. A. Cheema, M. Farooq, R. Ahmad, and H. Munir, “Climatic Trends in Faisalabad ( Pakistan ) Over the Last 60 Years ( 1945 - 2004 ),” J. Agric. Soc. Sciendes, vol. 1, no. January 2006, pp. 2004–2007, 2006.

D. Singh, S. K. Jain, and R. D. Gupta, “Trend in observed and projected maximum and minimum temperature over N-W Himalayan basin,” J. Mt. Sci. 2015 122, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 417–433, Feb. 2015, doi: 10.1007/S11629-013-2889-9.

A. A. Tahir, J. F. Adamowski, P. Chevallier, A. U. Haq, and S. Terzago, “Comparative assessment of spatiotemporal snow cover changes and hydrological behavior of the Gilgit, Astore and Hunza River basins (Hindukush–Karakoram–Himalaya region, Pakistan),” Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., vol. 128, no. 6, pp. 793–811, Dec. 2016, doi: 10.1007/S00703-016-0440-6




How to Cite

Khan, F., Amna Hassan, Syed Nouman Ali Shah, Najma Nazeer, Alamgir A. Khan, & Shahid Bukhari. (2022). Analysis of the Historical Temperature of Different Cities of Pakistan to Determine the Trends and Shift in Temperature. International Journal of Innovations in Science & Technology, 4(3), 801–808. Retrieved from

Most read articles by the same author(s)