Spatial Patterns of LRTI among Children in Lahore


  • Shaista Manaf Department of Geography, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Dr. Ibtisam Butt Department of Geography, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan


LRTI, ArcGIS 10.5, seasonality, Bronchopneumonia, children, chi-square Test


Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) is the leading global cause of morbidity and mortality in children of 1 month in developing countries. The aim of this research was to examine the spatial patterns of children under LRTI in Lahore, Pakistan. The records of all patients of LRTIs among children <5 years, admitted in the four different public sector hospitals of Lahore from 2017-2021 were analyzed. The collected data was processed and analyzed in SPSS 22.0 for the chi-square test (P<0.0.5), Multiple linear regression and ANOVA were calculated to assess the association of these variables. Town-wise distribution of diseases was mapped in ArcGIS 10.5. There were 2,609 pediatrics patients admitted and major cases in the year 2021.  All the patients were distributed in four age groups, <2m, 2-12m, 13-24m, 25-60m. The most common diagnosis was Bronchopneumonia with (77.50%), Bronchiolitis (11.84%), Pneumonia (6.86%), and Bronchitis (3.79%). A significant increasing trend was found in Bronchopneumonia. In town-wise analysis, out of 2,609 patients, 977 patients were observed in Allama Iqbal Town. The peak season of the disease was seen in winter Dec-Feb. LRTI is a leading cause of childhood hospitalization in Lahore, Pakistan. These results may guide health authorities to determine where and when to effectively allocate resources for the prevention and control of LRTI.

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How to Cite

Manaf, S., & BUTT, I. (2022). Spatial Patterns of LRTI among Children in Lahore. International Journal of Innovations in Science & Technology, 4(1), 51–64. Retrieved from