Geospatial Analysis of Land Fragmentation and Its Impact on Land Use of District Peshawar, Pakistan


  • Tabassum Naz Khalil Peshawar university
  • Atta ur Rehman Department of Geography and Geomatics University of Peshawar
  • Uzma Department of Geography and Geomatics University of Peshawar
  • Fahima Marwat Department of Geography and Geomatics University of Peshawar


Land Fragmentation, Land Use, Land fragmentation Revenue, Cultivated Land


The study analyzes how land fragmentation affects the use of the land in sample villages of Peshawar district. Globally, land is a primary source of productivity, yet the population is expanding at an alarming rate. This population growth has an effect on how land is acquired and used, which frequently results in the problem of land fragmentation. To meet the study's goals, data were gathered from both primary and secondary sources including an intensive field survey using a questionnaire as well as land revenue department and population census organization. Out of a total of 279 villages two sample villages, namely village Ghalji Kander Khel and village Mathra were selected by random means for detailed and intensive study. During 1990-91 to 2020-21, fragmented land in sample villages increased. In village Ghalji Kander Khel fragmented land increased from 5.6% in 1990-91 to 23.9% in 2020-21 while in village Mathra fragmented land increased from 6.9% in 1990-91 to 27.1% in 2020-21 indicating an overall four-time increase during past two decades. The main cause of land fragmentation in sample villages is the Law of Inheritance, followed by population growth, market prices, financial difficulties, social issues, and government infrastructure. In sample villages, both area under cultivation and cultivable waste decreased out of which in village Ghalji Kander Khel cultivated land shrunk from 3478 kanal (1 kanal =506 m2) to 2194.1kanals and cultivable waste reduced from 31.1 to 25.4 kanal from 1990-91 to 2020-21. In village Mathra, cultivated land contracted from 5473.2 kanal in 1990-91 to 3443.94 kanal in 2020-21, and cultivable waste diminished from 117.81 kanal to 32.4 kanal. The built-up area enlarged from 802.4 kanal to 1298.1 kanal in Ghalji Kander Khel and from 1392.3 kanal to 1991.6 kanal in Mathra. Finally, it was revealed that most of the area under cultivation is transformed into other land uses. The conversion of cultivable waste to cultivable land took place on a very small scale.


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How to Cite

Khalil, T. N., Atta ur Rehman, Uzma, & Fahima Marwat. (2023). Geospatial Analysis of Land Fragmentation and Its Impact on Land Use of District Peshawar, Pakistan. International Journal of Innovations in Science & Technology, 5(3), 252–269. Retrieved from