Python Based Estimation of Groundwater Quality Along Hudaira Drain


  • Ambreena Javaid College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Sajid Rashid Ahmad College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Abdul Qadir College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Wasif Yousaf College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Ali Imam Mirza College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.


Ground water, Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index CCME (WQI), Geochemical process, Geographical Information System (GIS), Piper diagram


During periods of restricted access to fresh surface water, enterprises depend on underground water reserves to meet their growing demands. Groundwater is crucial for fulfilling the growing demands of families, agriculture, and industry. The degradation of groundwater quality has resulted from a combination of natural phenomena and human intervention, leading to the introduction of novel contaminants into the ecosystem. The current study utilized geospatial technology to investigate the geochemical properties and Water Quality Index (WQI) of groundwater along the Hudaira drain in the Lahore area of Pakistan. A total of thirty-six groundwater samples were taken at regular intervals of half and one kilometer along the Hudaira drain. The samples underwent analysis for twenty physio-chemical and metal parameters. The groundwater at the sites under investigation was classified into three categories: adequate (5.55%), acceptable (63.9%), and poor (30.6%), according to the WQI. The trilinear piper diagram was used to assess the salinity of water samples. Samples were segregated into two groups: the first group mainly consisted of calcium bicarbonate, whereas the second group contained calcium sodium bicarbonate salts in groundwater. The Gibbs diagram is employed to illustrate the prevailing influence of rock-water interactions in all groundwater samples. Elevated levels of salt lead to salinity issues and diminished agricultural output. This study demonstrated the harmful effect of drained water on groundwater in the Hudaira region, primarily through the processes of percolation and infiltration. Moreover, it can be inferred that the groundwater near the Hudaira drain is not fit for human consumption. Nevertheless, prolonged irrigation may give rise to issues associated with the accumulation of salt.


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How to Cite

Javaid , A., Ahmad , S. R., Qadir, A., Yousaf, W., & Ali Imam Mirza. (2024). Python Based Estimation of Groundwater Quality Along Hudaira Drain . International Journal of Innovations in Science & Technology, 6(1), 170–184. Retrieved from




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