Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Concentration & its Impacts on Human Health (2010-2022)


  • Faiza Sarwar Department of Geography, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Safdar Ali SHirazi Department of Geography, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Qurat Ul Ain Department of Geography, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Farheen Khanum Mrüna DWC-LLC &Mrüna Limited, United Arab Emirates
  • Qammar Shabbir Rana Department of Space Science, University of the Punjab Lahore
  • Farah Khan Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan


Nitrogen Dioxide Concentration, Interpolation, Human Health, Climate Change


Nitrogen is one of chemical gases which has drastic impact on human health. It is also renowned globally as a major component of climate change. Lahore city has been selected as the study area to conduct this research. The basic objective of this study is to assess the temporal and seasonal change of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) concentration in the study area and its effects on human health. For this purpose, the two-phase methodology has been adopted. In the first phase, primary and secondary datasets were collected through an online questionnaire and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), respectively, while in the second phase, satellite imageries were acquired from NASA Earth Observatory (NEO). An online questionnaire survey was conducted for a better understanding and assessment of NO2 effects on inhabitants. The interpolation technique was applied to show a temporal change in Concentration of NO2 from 2010-2022 and for seasonal change in 2022. Findings of this research showed that NO2 levels are high during winters as compared to summers. Whereas, temporal analysis from 2010-2019 revealed that high dense columns of NO2 were found in 2019 & 2020 and less dense columns were found in 2019, whereas this concentration declined due to the arrival of COVID from 2020 to the end of 2021. The main reason of this decline is the lack of transport or industrial exhaust due to lockdown by COVID. The results of the questionnaire indicate that people encountered diverse health problems due to long- and short-term exposure to NO2. Moreover, this study helps to display the drastic impacts of NO2 concentration on human health and the natural environment.

Author Biographies

Faiza Sarwar, Department of Geography, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

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Safdar Ali SHirazi, Department of Geography, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Dr. Safdar Ali Shirazi graduated in 1987 from the Department of Geography, University of the Punjab (Lahore) with First Class obtained Roll of Honour. He also has a post-graduate diploma in Demography from Social Sciences Research Centre and Degree (Geography and Political Sciences) from the University of Punjab, Lahore. He was awarded PhD degree by the University of Karachi-Karachi in 2011. He completed his Post-Doctorate fellowship (funded by the Higher Education Commission, Pakistan) under the able supervision of Prof. Dr.Dagmar Haase in 2014 from the Institute of Geography, Department of Urban Ecology, Humboldt University, Berlin-Germany. In 2017 he was awarded DAAD Research Stay for Academics and Scientists for 3 month fellowship by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and he completed his second Post-Doctorate from the Institute of Geography, Humboldt University, Berlin-Germany His overall teaching experience to Degree and Post-graduate classes is more than 32 years. He is Professor of Geography since 27th July, 2017 and at present working as Chairman of Department of Geography, University of the Punjab, Lahore. He is also Ex-Director, Centre for Integrated Mountain Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore. He remained member and Secretary National Curriculum Revision Committee of Geography for two consecutive terms. He was elected as Secretary Pakistan Geographical Association in 2006 and 2013 and is member of various academic bodies in and outside Pakistan. He is authored and co-authored for more than four dozen research papers, book chapters and books published in Pakistan and abroad. He was awarded best teacher award twice (based on student’s evaluation) from the PU authorities in 2001 and 2002. His research interests included climate change, LULC changes, landscape ecology, ecosystem services, morphology of cities, desertification and resilience, population studies, urbanization and sustainability.
He can be contacted at


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How to Cite

Sarwar, F., Safdar Ali SHirazi, Qurat Ul Ain, Farheen Khanum, Qammar Shabbir Rana, & Farah Khan. (2022). Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Concentration & its Impacts on Human Health (2010-2022). International Journal of Innovations in Science & Technology, 4(3), 789–800. Retrieved from