Appraisal of Urban Heat Island over Gujranwala and its Environmental Impact Assessment using Satellite Imagery (1995-2016).


  • Syeda Areeba Gillani Remote Sensing group, Department of Space Science, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Saif-ul-Rehman Department of Geography, Government College University Lahore
  • Hafiz Haroon Ahmad Department of Space Science, University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Abdul Rehman Department of Space Science, University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Sarwar Ali Department of Space Science, University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Atif Ahmad Department of Space Science, University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Usama Junaid Department of Space Science, University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Muhammad Zubair Atiq Department of Space Science, University of the Punjab, Lahore


Urban heat island, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Land Surface Temperature (LST)


Rapid urbanization and concretization are the main sources of formation and existence of Urban Heat Island (UHI). Due to high concentration of pollutants in urban environments, the residents are exposed to unexpected health issues. This study aims at delineating the temporal variations in the spatial extent of UHI over Gujranwala using Landsat thermal imagery. It also aims at determining the variations in pollutant concentration in the atmosphere due to vehicle’s tailpipe emissions and fossil fuel burning by industrial plants. We used various indices e.g., NDVI, NDBI, NDWI and land surface temperature calculations to investigate spatiotemporal variations in urban growth patterns and their impacts on the UHI. The results show that the UHI enlarged in all direction specially in the north west during the study period which is similar to urban growth trends. There also exist positive correlation between industrial and vehicle’s discharge with pollutant’s concentration in atmosphere. Remote sensing tools proved elegant in trend mapping and analysis.

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Urban heat over Gujranwala



How to Cite

Gillani, S. A. ., Saif-ul-Rehman, Hafiz Haroon Ahmad, Abdul Rehman, Sarwar Ali, Atif Ahmad, Usama Junaid, & Muhammad Zubair Atiq. (2019). Appraisal of Urban Heat Island over Gujranwala and its Environmental Impact Assessment using Satellite Imagery (1995-2016) . International Journal of Innovations in Science & Technology, 1(1), 1–14. Retrieved from

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