Detecting Aphid Concentration in Wheat Leaf Using Remote Sensing and GIS


  • Rao Mansor Ali Khan Department of Space Science, University of Punjab.
  • Saira Batool Department of Space Science, University of Punjab.
  • Qamar Shabbir Rana Department of International Relations, National Defense University Islamabad.
  • Syed Amer Mahmood Department of Space Science, University of the Punjab
  • Mamoon ur Rasheed Department of Space Science, University of the Punjab


Aphid; Conventional Agricultural method; Moistourizing agent; Agro-climatic condition.


Wheat lies among the most prominent cereal crop of Pakistan which has a significant role in the stability of Pakistan’s economy. Certain biotic and a biotic factors including agro-climatic conditions, rainfall, lack of irrigation infrastructure and conventional agricultural methods are raising the risk of aphid attacks. The current study utilized satellite imagery for obtaining thermal datasets of complete wheat growth. Results revealed that rainfall is a significant parameter for the determination of aphid growth on wheat plant. A region receiving 0-10 mm rainfall, supported the growth of aphid. Moreover, the aphid survival was highly supported at a moderate temperature ranging between 20-25 oC with relative humidity ranging from 70-75 %. The study also revealed the production of weed in wheat crop acted as a moistrizing agent which consequently provided favorable conditions to the aphid population for growth. Inapropriate usage of fertilizers increased the nitrogen content in soil which turned to be favourable for the aphid attack. Thus, the study concludes that agro-climatic conditions must be considered before the aplication of pesticides.

Full Text


J. Anwar et al., “Assessment of yield criteria in bread wheat through correlation and path analysis,” J. Anim. Plant Sci., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 185–188, 2009.

M. Aslam, M. Razaq, W. Akhter, M. Faheem, and F. Ahmad, “Effect of sowing date of wheat on aphid (Schizaphis gramium RONDANI) population,” Pakistan Entomol., no. May, 2005.

Aheer GM, Munir M, Ali A (2007) Impact of weather factors on population of wheat aphids at Mandi Baha-ud-Din district. J Agric Res 45: 61–66. .

H. Jan et al., “Effect of biotic and abiotic factors on the population dynamics of wheat aphids,” vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 2349–2352, 2017.

Z. ABBASI, R. SULTANA, M. S. WAGAN, and F. SOOMRO, “Population, Fluctuation of Aphid on the different Wheat Varieties from Larkana District,” Sindh Univ. Res. J. -Science Ser., vol. 51, no. 03, pp. 411--418, 2019, doi: 10.26692/surj/2019.09.66.

A. A. Khan et al., “Effect of wheat cultivars on aphids and their predator populations,” African J. Biotechnol., vol. 10, no. 80, pp. 18399–18402, 2011, doi: 10.5897/AJB11.2961.

J. H. Hatchett, K. J. Starks, and J. A. Webster, “Insect and Mite Pests of Wheat,” Wheat Wheat Improv., vol. 13, pp. 625–675, Oct. 2015, doi: 10.2134/AGRONMONOGR13.2ED.C34.

“An ‘agricultural’ Pakistan — a necessity »” (accessed Apr. 11, 2022).

“Pakistan: Grain and Feed Update | USDA Foreign Agricultural Service.” (accessed Apr. 11, 2022).

A. K. Muhammad, “Wheat Crop Yield Losses Caused by the Aphids Infestation,” J. Biofertilizers Biopestic., vol. 03, no. 04, pp. 10–12, 2012, doi: 10.4172/2155-6202.1000122.

A. Kibe, S. Singh, and N. Kalra, “Water-nitrogen relationships for wheat growth and productivity in late sown conditions,” J. Agric. Sci. Technol., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–17, May 2006, doi: 10.4314/jagst.v7i1.31716.

R. A. Memon, G. R. Bhatti, S. Khalid, and S. Ahmed, “Illustrated weed flora of cotton crop of Khairpur district, Sindh, Pakistan,” Pakistan J. Bot., vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 5–12, 2014.

S. A. Ba-Angood and R. K. Stewart, “EFFECT OF CEREAL APHID INFESTATION ON GRAIN YIELD AND PERCENTAGE PROTEIN OF BARLEY, WHEAT, AND OATS IN SOUTHWESTERN QUEBEC,” Can. Entomol., vol. 112, no. 7, pp. 681–686, Jul. 1980, doi: 10.4039/ENT112681-7.

M. Hullé, B. Chaubet, E. Turpeau, and J. C. Simon, “Encyclop’aphid: A website on aphids and their natural enemies,” Entomol. Gen., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 97–101, 2020, doi: 10.1127/entomologia/2019/0867.

J. Lenné, “Pests and poverty: The continuing need for crop protection research,” Outlook Agric., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 235–250, 2000, doi: 10.5367/000000000101293301.

X. F. Liu, X. S. Hu, M. A. Keller, H. Y. Zhao, Y. F. Wu, and T. X. Liu, “Tripartite Interactions of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, Sitobion avenae and Wheat Varieties,” PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 9, p. e106639, Sep. 2014, doi: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0106639.

. S. M. K. and . R. M., “Varietal Performance of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Against Wheat Aphid (Macrosiphum miscanthi) and its Chemical Control with Different Doses of Insecticides,” Asian J. Plant Sci., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 205–207, Feb. 2002, doi: 10.3923/AJPS.2002.205.207.

R. Mahmood, M. A. Poswal, and A. Shehzad, “Distribution, Host Range and Seasonal Abundance of Sipha Sp. (Homoptera: Aphididae) and Their Natural Enemies in Pakistan,” Pakistan J. Biol. Sci., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 47–50, Dec. 2001, doi: 10.3923/PJBS.2002.47.50.

J. Liu, Y. Yan, A. Ali, N. Wang, Z. Zhao, and M. Yu, “Effects of wheat-maize intercropping on population dynamics of wheat aphids and their natural enemies,” Sustain., vol. 9, no. 8, 2017, doi: 10.3390/su9081390.

M. Razaq and F. Ahmad, “Population of aphid (Schizaphis graminum R.) on different varieties/lines ofwheat (Triticum aestivum L.),” Int. J. Agric. Biol., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 974–977, 2004.

T. Perveen Inayat, S. Akhtar Rana, N. Rana, T. Ruby, M. Javaid Iqbal Sadiqui, and M. Nadeem Abbas, “Predation rate in selected coccinellid (coleoptera) predators on some major aphidid and cicadellid (hemipteran) pests,” Int. J. Agric. Biol., vol. 13, no. January, pp. 427–430, 2011, [Online]. Available:

D. H. Kazmi, G. Rasul, D. H. Kazmi, and G. Rasul, “Agrometeorological wheat yield prediction in rainfed Potohar region of Pakistan,” Agric. Sci., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 170–177, Mar. 2012, doi: 10.4236/AS.2012.32019.

M. K. Khattak, Riazuddin, and M. Anayatullah, “Population dynamics of aphids (Aphididae: Homoptera) on different wheat cultivars and response of cultivars to aphids in respect of yield and yield related parameters,” Pak. J. Zool., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 109–115, 2007.

S. Saleem, F. Ullah, and M. Ashfaque, “Population dynamics and natural enemies of aphids on winter wheat in Peshawar, Pakistan,” Pak. J. Zool., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 505–513, 2009.

Q. Zeb, H. Badshah, H. Ali, R. Shah, and M. Rehman, “Population of aphids on different varieties/lines of wheat and their effect on yield and thousands grain weight,” Sarhad J. Agric, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 443–450, 2011, [Online]. Available: on aphid.PDF.

J. A. MANN, G. M. TATCHELL, M. J. DUPUCH, R. HARRINGTON, S. J. CLARK, and H. A. McCARTNEY, “Movement of apterous Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) in response to leaf disturbances caused by wind and rain,” Ann. Appl. Biol., vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 417–427, 1995, doi: 10.1111/J.1744-7348.1995.TB05376.X.

N. Elliott and R. W. Kieckhefer, “Response by coccinellids to spatial variation in cereal aphid density,” Popul. Ecol. 2000 421, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 81–90, 2000, doi: 10.1007/S101440050012.

M. J. Brewer and N. C. Elliott, “Biological control of cereal aphids in north america and mediating effects of host plant and habitat manipulations,” Annu. Rev. Entomol., vol. 49, pp. 219–242, 2004, doi: 10.1146/ANNUREV.ENTO.49.061802.123149.

N. Desneux, A. Decourtye, and J. M. Delpuech, “The Sublethal Effects of Pesticides on Beneficial Arthropods,”, vol. 52, pp. 81–106, Dec. 2006, doi: 10.1146/ANNUREV.ENTO.52.110405.091440.

A. Decourtye, M. Henry, and N. Desneux, “Overhaul pesticide testing on bees,” Nat. 2013 4977448, vol. 497, no. 7448, pp. 188–188, May 2013, doi: 10.1038/497188a.

N. Desneux, M. H. Pham-Delègue, and L. Kaiser, “Effects of sub-lethal and lethal doses of lambda-cyhalothrin on oviposition experience and host-searching behaviour of a parasitic wasp, Aphidius ervi,” Pest Manag. Sci., vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 381–389, Apr. 2004, doi: 10.1002/PS.822.

N. Desneux, E. Wajnberg, X. Fauvergue, S. Privet, and L. Kaiser, “Oviposition behaviour and patch-time allocation in two aphid parasitoids exposed to deltamethrin residues,” Entomol. Exp. Appl., vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 227–235, 2004, doi: 10.1111/j.0013-8703.2004.00198.x.

A. Biondi, O. Campolo, N. Desneux, G. Siscaro, V. Palmeri, and L. Zappalà, “Life stage-dependent susceptibility of Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) to two pesticides commonly used in citrus orchards,” Chemosphere, vol. 128, pp. 142–147, Jun. 2015, doi: 10.1016/J.CHEMOSPHERE.2015.01.034.

N. A. Jam and M. Saber, “Sublethal effects of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on the functional response of the aphid parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum,” Entomol. Gen., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 173–190, 2018, doi: 10.1127/entomologia/2018/0734.

A. A. A. H. Mohammed et al., “Impact of imidacloprid and natural enemies on cereal aphids: Integration or ecosystem service disruption?,” Entomol. Gen., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 47–61, 2018, doi: 10.1127/entomologia/2017/0471.

P. Liang, Y. A. Tian, A. Biondi, N. Desneux, and X. W. Gao, “Short-term and transgenerational effects of the neonicotinoid nitenpyram on susceptibility to insecticides in two whitefly species,” Ecotoxicology, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1889–1898, Oct. 2012, doi: 10.1007/S10646-012-0922-3.

L. Xiaolan, T. Qiuling, L. Yongdan, R. Campos Mateus, L. Pei, and G. Xiwu, “Widespread resistance of the aphid Myzus persicae to pirimicarb across China, and insights on ace2 mutation frequency in this species,” Entomol. Gen., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 285–299, 2017, doi: 10.1127/ENTOMOLOGIA/2017/0480.

R. Weisz, S. Fleischer, and Z. Smilowitz, “Site-Specific Integrated Pest Management for High Value Crops: Sample Units for Map Generation Using the Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) as a Model System,” J. Econ. Entomol., vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 1069–1080, Oct. 1995, doi: 10.1093/JEE/88.5.1069.

L. Winder, J. N. Perry, and J. M. Holland, “The spatial and temporal distribution of the grain aphid Sitobion avenae in winter wheat,” Entomol. Exp. Appl., vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 277–290, 1999, doi: 10.1046/J.1570-7458.1999.00588.X.

C. L. Young and M. G. Wright, “Seasonal and spatial distribution of banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in banana plantations on oahu,” Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc, vol. 37, no. May, pp. 73–80, 2005, [Online]. Available:

N. Desneux, R. J. O’neil, H. O. Jung, and S. Yoo, “Suppression of Population Growth of the Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, by Predators: The Identification of a Key Predator and the Effects of Prey Dispersion, Predator Abundance, and Temperature,” Environ. Entomol., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1342–1349, Oct. 2006, doi: 10.1093/EE/35.5.1342.

N. Desneux, J. M. Rabasse, Y. Ballanger, and L. Kaiser, “Parasitism of canola aphids in France in autumn,” J. Pest Sci. 2006 792, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 95–102, Feb. 2006, doi: 10.1007/S10340-006-0121-1.

M. Janković et al., “Functional role of different habitat types at local and landscape scales for aphids and their natural enemies,” J. Pest Sci. (2004)., vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 261–273, 2017, doi: 10.1007/s10340-016-0744-9.

P. Han, C. Y. Niu, and N. Desneux, “Identification of Top-Down Forces Regulating Cotton Aphid Population Growth in Transgenic Bt Cotton in Central China,” PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 8, p. e102980, Aug. 2014, doi: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0102980.

F. Yang et al., “Species composition and seasonal dynamics of aphid parasitoids and hyperparasitoids in wheat fields in northern China,” Sci. Reports 2017 71, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–9, Oct. 2017, doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-14441-6.

C. C. Jaworski et al., “Varying the spatial arrangement of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles and companion plants to improve conservation biological control,” J. Appl. Ecol., vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1176–1188, May 2019, doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13353.

J. Anwar et al., “Assessment of adaptability and stability of grain yield in bread wheat genotypes under different sowing times in Punjab,” Pakistan J. Bot., vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 1985–1993, 2011.

H. S, K. A, M. A, F. S, and T. A, “Interference and economic threshold level of little seed canary grass in wheat under different sowing times,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 441–449, Aug. 2015, doi: 10.1007/S11356-014-3304-Y.

A. A. Khakwani, M. D. Dennett, M. Munir, and M. Abid, “Growth and yield response of wheat varieties to water stress at booting and anthesis stages of development,” Pakistan J. Bot., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 879–886, 2012.

M. S. Wains, M. W. Jamil, M. A. Ali, M. Hussain, and J. Anwar, “Germplasm screening and incorporation of aphid resistance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),” J. Anim. Plant Sci., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 919–925, 2014.

I.-H. Akhtar and . A. K., “Impact of Plant Phenology and Coccinellid Predators on the Population Dynamic of Rose Aphid Macrosiphum rosaeiformis Das (Aphididae: Homoptera) on Rose,” Asian J. Plant Sci., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 119–122, Dec. 2002, doi: 10.3923/AJPS.2003.119.122.

F. S. Murungu and T. Madanzi, “Seed priming, genotype and sowing date effects on emergence, growth and yield of wheat in a tropical low altitude area of Zimbabwe,” African J. Agric. Res., vol. 5, no. 17, pp. 2341–2349, 2010.

R. Patterson, C. C. Extension, R. Ramirez, and E. E. Specialist, “Aphid Natural Enemies and Biological Control,” no. March, p. 5, 2016.

C. A. Triplehorn, N. F. Johnson, and D. J. (Donald J. Borror, “Borror and DeLong’s introduction to the study of insects,” p. 864, 2005.




How to Cite

Khan, R. M. A., Saira Batool, Qamar Shabbir Rana, Syed Amer Mahmood, & Mamoon ur Rasheed. (2022). Detecting Aphid Concentration in Wheat Leaf Using Remote Sensing and GIS. International Journal of Innovations in Science & Technology, 4(2), 336–347. Retrieved from

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>