Geo-Spatial Dynamics of Snow Cover and Hydro-Meteorological Parameters for Gilgit Balistan, Pakistan


  • Hania Arif Centre for Integrated Mountain Research, (Punjab University Lahore, Pakistan)
  • Munawar Sabir Centre for Integrated Mountain Research, (Punjab University Lahore, Pakistan)
  • Syed Amer Mahmood Department of Space Science (Punjab University Lahore, Pakistan)


Hydrology, Snow cover dynamics, Upper Indus Basin, Principal Component Analysis, Hydro-meteorological


Snow cover dynamism is an important component of the UIB’s (Upper Indus Basin) hydrodynamics in the context of snow building up and reduction occurring seasonally.  This study incorporates investigation into the dynamics of snow covers in relation to the hydrodynamics of the region. Data acquired through remotely sensed MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) satellite for the duration of 20 years from 2000-2020, together with additional variables of hydrometeorology was utilized in the assessment of spatial and temporal fluctuation in snow-covered areas of Gilgit Baltistan (GB). The snow cover analysis was done temporally with an evaluation of its relationship with the hydro-meteorological variables through the application of Pearson correlation, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and basin-wise zonal analysis. The investigation revealed that glacial ice covered an area of 25 to 50% and that the SCA (Snow Covered Area) may expand to 80 to 90% of the region on the amassment of snow in the snowy season. Trends from hydro-meteorological correlativity demonstrate a greatly considerable proportionality of R = 0.78, between the maximal and minimal temperature zones and river drains. However, no noticeable correlativity was found between precipitation and river drains (R = -0.04). For the region of Hunza, a statistically important negative correlativity was observed between the river drains and precipitation i.e., R = –0.83. The minus factor indicates an increase in river drainage with increased melting of snow covers due to high temperatures. This investigation infers a close association of river runoffs of the GB area with its snow cover dynamism. Discharge of rivers is a consequence of melting snow in the basin due to rising temperature and thus it speeds up at the beginning of summers mainly during April and May. Snow and ice start melting from the bottom and then reaches the top areas that have greater upstanding glacial mass.


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How to Cite

Arif, H., Munawar Sabir, & Syed Amer Mahmood. (2023). Geo-Spatial Dynamics of Snow Cover and Hydro-Meteorological Parameters for Gilgit Balistan, Pakistan. International Journal of Innovations in Science & Technology, 5(3), 193–214. Retrieved from

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