Novel Technique to Investigate Glacio-Fluvial Hypsometry in Hunza Using Local Indicator of Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA)


  • Syed Amer Mahmood Department of Space Science, University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Sarah Hassan Centre For Integrated Mountain Research (CIMR) University of the Punjab Lahore
  • Hania Arif College of Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES), University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Saira Batool College of Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES), University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Areeba Amer Center For Integrated Mountain Research (CIMR), University of the Punjab, Lahore.
  • Muhammad Shahazad Department of Computer Science (PUCIT), University of Punjab
  • Rana Muhammad Sohail Aslam Department of Space Science, University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Bushra Talib Department of Technology & engineering, University of the Lahore


SRTM DEM 90m, Global Moran Index, Hypsometry, Spatial auto-correlation


Hypsometric Integral (HI) displays the effect of active tectonics and sensitivity on geomorphic structures. In this study we calculated HI values for Hunza valley to investigate neotectonics, development of topographic structures and process of erosion using SRTM DEM 90m. ArcGIS and MATLAB is used to generate HI and hypsometric curve (HC). We generated HI and HC values by using D8 algorithm in MATLAB to extract drainage basins for 5 and 6 Strahler orders. HI and HC values show the stages of erosion for instance high values of HI and convex HC displays young and tectonically active stage. We used different grid sizes in ArcGIS to calculate maximum, mean and minimum elevation utilizing different statistical techniques. We used Local Indicator of Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA) instead of Global Moran Index to determine the extent of distribution of clustered, dispersed and randomized HI values. This technique indicates high positive z score for auto correlated data. Regions with high HI value indicate relative uplift, undissected and young structures while low HI values indicate sediment accumulation and shallow earthquakes.

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How to Cite

Syed Amer Mahmood, Sarah Hassan, Hania Arif, Saira Batool, Areeba Amer, Muhammad Shahazad, Rana Muhammad Sohail Aslam, & Bushra Talib. (2021). Novel Technique to Investigate Glacio-Fluvial Hypsometry in Hunza Using Local Indicator of Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA). International Journal of Innovations in Science & Technology, 3(2), 73–85. Retrieved from

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